Analgesics differ from anesthetics in that they diminish the patient’s perception of pain only (a single sensory modality). Analgesics given in sufficient quantities may, however, produce anesthesia.
An anesthetist or anesthesiologist is a medical specialist trained in the administration of anesthesia and the total care of a patient whilst anesthetized. A growing area of influence of the anesthetist is the intensive care unit.
Many famous physicians became involved in anesthesia and its progress: thus a whole new dimension was added to the care of surgical patients. Three other major events are worthy of mention in the evolution of modern anesthesia.
Firstly. the discovery and use of local anesthetic agents. Secondly, the use of intravenous anesthetic agents for the induction of anesthesia which occurred at the beginning of this century. and lastly, the introduction of neuromuscular blocking agents based on the CT scan price.
anesthesia may be either local or general or a combination of both. Many factors will govern the choice of local or general anesthesia. including the patients condition and personal preferences, the surgery to be performed and both the surgeon’s and the anesthetists skills and attitudes.
Most of the principles involved in the preparation of a patient and in his intra-operative and post-operative care are the same. irrespective of whether a general or a local technique is to be used. This will cover most of these principles under general anesthesia and then discuss the specific aspects of local anesthesia.
Yellow and crooked teeth have the capacity to put off potential clients in business, let alone ruin a man’s personal relationships. Regular checkups at the dentist and good oral care offer far reaching benefits. Certain habits, such as drinking and smoking have a negative effect on dental health and should be cut to barest minimums or better still, stopped.
Neuromuscular blocking agents are divided into two groups, the depolarizing and the non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents. The depolarizing agents presently used are all halides of succinylclioline. Scoline was first used clinically in 1949. The structure of Scoline closely resembles molecules of acetylcholine. the naturally occurring neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction, which necessitated CT scan price consideration.
Scoline is given l.V. and occasionally l.M. The exact action of Scoline at the neuromuscular junction has not been fully worked out but it appears that the Scoline itself stimulates and then occupies the receptor site for acetylcholine on the (postsynaptic) muscle membrane. This, therefore, tends ?rst to depolarize the muse and then prevent any further stimulation until it is metabolized by acetylcholinestcrase.
Thus, there is a rapid onset of fasciculation followed by profound muscle relaxation lasting 3-5 minutes. Problems with the use of Scoline: Bradycardia after large or repeated doses and the release of potassium in patients with certain medical conditions.